托福阅读真题+题目+答案：The Development of Factories
One of the most enduring images of the eighteenth and nineteenth century British Industrial Revolution is that of the large factory,filled with workers laboring amid massive machinery driven by either water or steam power.Mechanized factory production evolved out of forms of industry that had emerged only during the early modern period (1500-1750).In the Middle Ages virtually all industry in Europe was undertaken by skilled craftsmen belonging to urban guilds,and these artisans,working either by themselves or with the assistance of apprentices or journeymen,produced everything from candlesticks and hats to oxcarts and beds.During the early modern period the urban craftsman's shop gave way to two different types of industrial workplaces,the rural cottage and the large handicraft workshop.Both of these served as halfway houses,or transitional stages,to the large factory.
1.The word"enduring"in the passage is closest in meaning to
2. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage?Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
A Industry in Europe during the Middle Ages involved apprentices making candlesticks,hats,oxcarts,and beds.
B Skilled craftsmen belonging to guilds,sometimes assisted by apprentices,carried out almost all industrial production during the Middle Ages.
C Urban guilds in the Middle Ages were made up of skilled workers and journeymen who performed the same kind of work and produced a range of items.
D During the Middle Ages skilled craftsmen belonging to guilds could produce everything from candlesticks to beds.
Beginning in the sixteenth century,entrepreneurs began employing families in the countryside to spin and weave cloth and make nails and cutlery. ⬛ By locating industry in the countryside,the entrepreneurs were able to escape the regulations imposed by the guilds regarding employment and the price of finished products. ⬛ They also paid lower wages,because the rural workers,who also received an income from farming,were willing to work for less than the residents of towns. ⬛ Another attraction of rural industry was that all the members of the family,including children,participated in the process. ⬛ In this“domestic system"a capitalist entrepreneur provided the workers with the raw materials and sometimes the tools they needed.He later paid them a fixed rate for each finished product.The entrepreneur was also responsible for having the finished cloth dyed and for marketing the commodities in regional towns.
3.Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 2 about the impact of the domestic system?
A The domestic system contributed to the migration of workers from the city to the countryside.
B The domestic system encouraged family members to join guilds.
C The domestic system reduced the costs of industrial production for entrepreneurs.
D The domestic system resulted in higher prices for consumer products.
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