2018年8月25日托福阅读真题+题目+答案：Interpreting Prehistoric Cave Art
The Upper Paleolithic period began about 45,000 B.c.It is from this period,in several caves located in Europe,that archaeologists have discovered remarkable examples of prehistoric art. ⬛ One of the early interpretations of cave art was that it was“art for the sake of art," much as we today might go to a museum to see the skills of artists. ⬛ This is a Western-culture-centered interpretation,however,and some would argue that there might be other,context-specific interpretations that are more suitable. ⬛ The location of this art deep within dark caves, in which small flickering lamps would only reveal small portions of painted walls,also does not seem to fit with an interpretation of prehistoric“art galleries." ⬛
1.According to paragraph 1,which TWO of the following could explain why the "art for the sake of art"interpretation of cave art may not be accurate?To receive credit,you must select TWO answers.
A The narrow cultural basis of that interpretation
B The relatively small number of surviving images
C The different levels of skill of individual cave artists
D The absence of sufficient lighting to permit proper viewing of the art
Another early interpretation was based on the fact that most of the images are animals,and the majority of these,such as horses and bison,were hunted for food.This viewpoint became known as the "hunting magic"explanation.The drawing of the animals was interpreted as a way to magically ensure that an upcoming hunt would be successful.The hunting-magic interpretation has much appeal because we know that hunting was an important part of daily life during this period.And,in direct contrast to the art-for-art's-sake explanation,the practice of these“rituals"deep within caves suggests that not everyone participated.There are many nonhunting images in the caves,however,that do not support this explanation,such as geometric shapes and human figures.
2.According to paragraph 2,which of the following challenges the view that cave art was intended to ensure the successful hunting of animals?
A Most of the animals shown in cave art were not hunted for food.
B Non-hunters as well as hunters created images in the caves.
C Cave art is found deep within caves that probably were hard for most hunters to reach.
D Cave art includes many images that do not show hunters or animals.
In an effort to include all the types of images in Upper Paleolithic cave art in a comprehensive interpretation,some researchers turned to aspects of how the human mind works during altered states of consciousness and what images the mind“sees"during different phases of altered states.This explanation is called“entoptic phenomena,"and it argues that all modern human brains experience the same sets of visual images in the same progression.For example,during the first stage it is common to see geometric patterns;during the second stage,the brain begins to associate various geometric designs with real objects;and during the third stage,the brain sees actual animals,people,and monsters.Altered states can be achieved in many ways-drugs,intense dancing,sitting in absolute darkness as in a deep cave-and the entoptic-phenomena interpretation argues that cave-art images represent the "visions"seen during these experiences.
3.Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage?Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
A Some researchers studied the different ways in which looking at cave art alters the consciousness of the people who look at it.
B In developing an interpretation that includes all types of cave art, some researchers considered how and what the human mind sees during altered states of consciousness.
C Interpretations of cave art are different according to which state of consciousness the human mind is in at the time the image is being viewed.
D In seeking to interpret how the human mind works during altered states of consciousness,some researchers examined what people see when they look at various cave-art images.
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