托福阅读真题+题目+答案：Imitation in Child Development
When does imitation become possible?How important is this ability in the learning of infants and children?Andrew Meltzoff and M.Keith Moore argue that even newborns and very young infants imitate a variety of responses,including tongue protrusion,mouth opening,and possibly even facial expressions portraying such emotions as happiness,sadness,and surprise.Although some investigators have been unable to replicate these results,many others,including the authors of one study involving infants from Nepal,report a high degree of imitative competence in newborns.
1.Why does the author mention"one study involving infants from Nepal"?
○ To illustrate the variety of different imitative responses young infants are capable of
○ To emphasize the extent to which studies of imitative competence in infants differ
○ To suggest that infants in different parts of the world respond to facial expressions differently
○ To support the claim that very young infants engage in imitative behaviors
Even more controversial is what imitative behaviors mean.The influential Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget,for example,claimed infants younger than eight to twelve months could imitate someone else's behavior only when able to see themselves making these responses.Because babies do not ordinarily view their own faces, imitative facial gestures would be impossible,according to Piaget, until after about a year in age,when symbolic capacities (abilities to use a symbol,an object,or a word to stand for something)emerge. From this perspective,then,the facial gestures that infants younger than a year make in response to a model's facial expression are stereotyped,rigid responses set off by or linked to limited forms of stimulation rather than imitations of what the child has seen.For example,perhaps tongue protrusion by a model arouses the infant, which in turn promotes a sucking response that naturally invokes tongue protrusion from the infant.If this is the case,infants could be responding to just a few types of stimuli and producing a kind of reflexive (automatic)motor activity that is not really a form of imitation.
2.The word"controversial"in the passage is closest in meaning to
3.Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage?Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
A In Piaget's view,the imitative responses of infants younger than a year is fixed and rigid because it is limited to the model's facial expression.
B According to Piaget,infants younger than a year are stimulated to imitate rigid,stereotyped facial expressions of models rather than other facial expressions.
C In Piaget's view,infants younger than a year have fixed responses to faces they see but are not capable of imitating facial expressions.
D Piaget's view is stereotyped and rigid because it does not consider other forms of stimulation that infants younger than a year imitate.
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