Seismic waves-energy waves produced by earthquakes-permit scientists to determine the location, thickness, and properties of Earth's internal zones. ⬛ They are generated when rock masses are suddenly disturbed, such as when they break or rupture. ⬛ Vibrations spread out in all directions from the source of the disturbance, traveling at different speeds through parts of Earth's crust and interior that differ in chemical composition and physical properties. ⬛ The principal categories of these waves are primary, secondary, and surface. ⬛ All three types of waves are recorded on an instrument called a seismograph.
Primary waves, or P-waves, are the speediest of the three kinds of waves and therefore the first to arrive at a seismograph station after there has been an earthquake. They travel through the upper crust of Earth at speeds of 4 to 5 kilometers per second, but near the base of the crust they speed along at 6 or 7 kilometers per second. In these primary waves, pulses of energy are transmitted as a succession of compressions and expansions that parallel the direction of propagation of the wave itself. Thus, a given segment of rock set in motion during an earthquake is driven into its neighbor and bounces back. The neighbor strikes the next particle and rebounds and subsequent particles continue the motion. Vibrational energy is an accordion-like push-pull movement that can be transmitted through solids, liquids and gases. Of course, the speed of P-wave transmission will differ in materials of different density and elastic properties.
1.Paragraph 2 indicates that compared to P-waves traveling through Earth's upper crust, P-waves traveling near the base of Earth's crust
A move at higher speeds
B are more likely to reach a seismograph station
C are less likely to cause an earthquake
D are less likely to undergo compression
Secondary waves, or S-waves, travel 1 to2 kilometers per second slower than do P-waves. Unlike the movement of P-waves, rock vibration in secondary waves is at right angles to the direction of propagation of the energy. This type of wave is easily demonstrated by tying a length of rope to a hook and then shaking the free end. A series of undulations will develop in the rope and move toward the hook-that is, in the direction of propagation. Any given particle along the rope, however, will move up and down in a direction perpendicular to the direction of propagation. It is because of their more complex motion that S-waves travel more slowly than P-waves. They are the second group of oscillations to arrive at a seismograph station. Unlike P-waves, secondary waves will not pass through liquids or gases.
2.According to paragraph 3, the main reason that S-waves travel more slowly than P-waves do is that S-waves
A lack a consistent direction
B do not spread through gases or liquids
C are produced by the movement of P-waves
D move in a more complex way than P-waves
3.In paragraph 3, the author presents the characteristics of S-waves by
A comparing and contrasting S-waves and P-waves
B arguing that S-waves mostly behave like P-waves
C introducing new research findings about how S-waves move
D contrasting past and present understandings of how S-waves behave
Both P- and S-waves are sometimes also termed body waves because they are able to penetrate deep into the interior or body of our planet. Body waves travel faster in rocks of greater elasticity, and their speeds therefore increase steadily as they move downward into more elastic zones of Earth's interior and then decrease as they begin to make their ascent toward Earth's surface. The change in velocity that occurs as body waves invade rocks of different elasticity results in a bending or refraction of the wave. The many small refractions cause the body waves to assume a curved travel path through Earth.